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Reviews of "Detection of Salmonella Typhi and blaCTX-M Genes in Drinking Water, Wastewater, and Environmental Biofilms in Sindh Province, Pakistan"

Reviewers: C Oh (University of Florida) | 📒📒📒 ◻️◻️ • Y Guo (Cranfield University) | 📗📗📗📗◻️

Published onMay 23, 2024
Reviews of "Detection of Salmonella Typhi and blaCTX-M Genes in Drinking Water, Wastewater, and Environmental Biofilms in Sindh Province, Pakistan"
key-enterThis Pub is a Review of
Detection of Salmonella Typhi and blaCTX-M Genes in Drinking Water, Wastewater, and Environmental Biofilms in Sindh Province, Pakistan
Detection of Salmonella Typhi and blaCTX-M Genes in Drinking Water, Wastewater, and Environmental Biofilms in Sindh Province, Pakistan
Description

Abstract Typhoid fever poses a significant public health risk, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where access to clean water and improved sanitation may be limited. In Pakistan, this risk is especially serious given the emergence of an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Salmonella Typhi strain, a strain attributed to S. Typhi acquisition of the blaCTX-M-15 gene. The now-dominant XDR S. Typhi strain, non-XDR S. Typhi, and blaCTX-M genes are readily disseminated via drinking water and wastewater in Pakistan and may also be present in biofilms associated with these environmental sources. This study investigates the presence of S. Typhi and blaCTX-M genes within these environmental compartments. Drinking water (n=35) or wastewater samples (n=35) and samples of their associated biofilms were collected from Karachi and Hyderabad, Pakistan. Samples were tested by PCR for S. Typhi and blaCTX-M group 1 genes as a proxy for blaCTX-M-15. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) were conducted to assess microbial load. S. Typhi was detected by PCR in one bulk wastewater sample and one drinking water biofilm. BlaCTX-M group 1 genes were detected in all sample types and were detected more frequently in bulk wastewater (n=13/35) than in drinking water (n=2/35) and more frequently overall in biofilm samples (n=22/70) versus bulk water (n=15/70). Detection of blaCTX-M in biofilm was not significantly associated with detection in the associated bulk water sample. This study marks the first detection of S. Typhi in drinking water biofilms and the first report of blaCTX-M genes in environmental biofilms in Pakistan. Environmental biofilms, particularly in drinking water systems, may serve as reservoirs for human exposure to S. Typhi and drug resistance genes. This study underscores the importance of expanding surveillance strategies to include biofilm sampling, providing valuable insights into pathogen dissemination in water systems, and informing targeted public health interventions to prevent waterborne diseases.

To read the original manuscript, click the link above.

Summary of Reviews: This preprint investigates if microbial pollutants like S. Typhi can be detected in drinking water, wastewater, or their associated biofilms. This study makes the case for expanding water surveillance strategies to include biofilm sampling to provide more insights into pathogen dissemination in water systems. Overall, both the reviewers find that this study builds on previous work on the role of biofilm as a pathogen reservoir in urban water systems. However, they expressed concerns about the strength of evidence to support its claims, particularly lack of experimental data results, discussion of limitations and relevant literature to contextualize the findings.

Reviewer 1 (Chamteut O…) | 📒📒📒 ◻️◻️

Reviewer 2 (Ying G…) | 📗📗📗📗◻️

RR:C19 Strength of Evidence Scale Key

📕 ◻️◻️◻️◻️ = Misleading

📙📙 ◻️◻️◻️ = Not Informative

📒📒📒 ◻️◻️ = Potentially Informative

📗📗📗📗◻️ = Reliable

📘📘📘📘📘 = Strong

To read the reviews, click the links below. 

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