AbstractThe availability of three COVID-19 vaccines in the United States provides an unprecedented opportunity to examine how vaccine platforms and timing of vaccination in pregnancy impact maternal and neonatal immunity. Here, we characterized the antibody profile after Ad26.COV2.S, mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 vaccination in 158 pregnant individuals, and evaluated transplacental antibody transfer by profiling maternal and umbilical cord blood in 175 maternal-neonatal dyads. These analyses revealed lower vaccine-induced functions and Fc-receptor binding after Ad26.COV2.S compared to mRNA vaccination, and subtle advantages in titer and function with mRNA-1273 versus BN162b2. mRNA vaccinees had higher titers and functions against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. First and third trimester vaccination resulted in enhanced maternal immune responses relative to second trimester. Higher cord:maternal transfer ratios following first and second trimester vaccination reflect placental compensation for waning maternal titers. These results support vaccination early in pregnancy to maximize maternal protection throughout gestation, without compromising neonatal antibody protection.