AbstractUnderstanding immune responses following SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection will facilitate the development of next-generation vaccines. Here, we profiled spike (S)-specific B cell responses following Omicron/BA.1 infection in mRNA-vaccinated donors. The acute antibody response was characterized by high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and a bias toward recognition of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting the early activation of vaccine-induced memory B cells (MBCs). BA.1 breakthrough infection induced a shift in B cell immunodominance hierarchy from the S2 subunit toward the receptor binding domain (RBD). A large proportion of RBD-directed neutralizing antibodies isolated from BA.1 breakthrough infection donors displayed convergent sequence features and broadly recognized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Together, these findings provide fundamental insights into the role of pre-existing immunity in shaping the B cell response to heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variant exposure.One sentence summaryBA.1 breakthrough infection activates pre-existing memory B cells with broad activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants.