Skip to main content
SearchLoginLogin or Signup

Reviews of "SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Accumulation in the Skull-Meninges-Brain Axis: Potential Implications for Long-Term Neurological Complications in post-COVID-1"

Reviewers: E Goetzl (UCSF Medical Center) | 📗📗📗📗◻️ • G Sathe (University of Dundee) | 📘📘📘📘📘

Published onMay 18, 2023
Reviews of "SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Accumulation in the Skull-Meninges-Brain Axis: Potential Implications for Long-Term Neurological Complications in post-COVID-1"
key-enterThis Pub is a Review of
SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Accumulation in the Skull-Meninges-Brain Axis: Potential Implications for Long-Term Neurological Complications in post-COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Accumulation in the Skull-Meninges-Brain Axis: Potential Implications for Long-Term Neurological Complications in post-COVID-19
Description

ABSTRACT Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been associated mainly with a range of neurological symptoms, including brain fog and brain tissue loss, raising concerns about the virus’s acute and potential chronic impact on the central nervous system. In this study, we utilized mouse models and human post-mortem tissues to investigate the presence and distribution of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the skull-meninges-brain axis. Our results revealed the accumulation of the spike protein in the skull marrow, brain meninges, and brain parenchyma. The injection of the spike protein alone caused cell death in the brain, highlighting a direct effect on brain tissue. Furthermore, we observed the presence of spike protein in the skull of deceased long after their COVID-19 infection, suggesting that the spike’s persistence may contribute to long-term neurological symptoms. The spike protein was associated with neutrophil-related pathways and dysregulation of the proteins involved in the PI3K-AKT as well as complement and coagulation pathway. Overall, our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein trafficking from CNS borders into the brain parenchyma and identified differentially regulated pathways may present insights into mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 and present diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.Graphical Summary Short Summary The accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the skull-meninges-brain axis presents potential molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets for neurological complications in long-COVID-19 patients.

To read the original manuscript, click the link above.

Summary of Reviews: This preprint explores the presence of Sars-CoV-2 spike protein in the brain of mouse models and human tissues, finding a significant amount in the skull marrow, brain meninges, and brain parenchyma. The findings suggest the possibility of the spike crossing the skull-meninges axis and potentially impacting long-term neurological funcion. The authors rate this study reliable to strong, as its main claims are supported by the methods and data, and they suggest the authors explore additional components of the brain to elucidate the mechanisms of viral entry.

Reviewer 1 (Edward G…) | 📗📗📗📗◻️

Reviewer 2 (Gajanan S…) | 📘📘📘📘📘

RR:C19 Strength of Evidence Scale Key

📕 ◻️◻️◻️◻️ = Misleading

📙📙 ◻️◻️◻️ = Not Informative

📒📒📒 ◻️◻️ = Potentially Informative

📗📗📗📗◻️ = Reliable

📘📘📘📘📘 = Strong

To read the reviews, click the links below. 

Comments
0
comment
No comments here
Why not start the discussion?