AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is in immediate need of an effective antidote. Although the Spike glycoprotein (SgP) of SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to bind to heparins, the structural features of this interaction, the role of a plausible heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptor, and the antagonism of this pathway through small molecules remain unaddressed. Using an in vitro cellular assay, we demonstrate HSPGs modified by the 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform-3, but not isoform-5, preferentially increased SgP-mediated cell-to-cell fusion in comparison to control, unmodified, wild-type HSPGs. Computational studies support preferential recognition of the receptor-binding domain of SgP by 3-O-sulfated HS sequences. Competition with either fondaparinux, a 3-O-sulfated HS-binding oligopeptide, or a synthetic, non-sugar small molecule, blocked SgP-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Finally, the synthetic, sulfated molecule inhibited fusion of GFP-tagged pseudo SARS-CoV-2 with human 293T cells with sub-micromolar potency. Overall, overexpression of 3-O-sulfated HSPGs contribute to fusion of SARS-CoV-2, which could be effectively antagonized by a synthetic, small molecule.