AbstractBackgroundKnowing the transmissibility of asymptomatic infections and risk of infection from household- and community-exposures is critical to SARS-CoV-2 control. Limited previous evidence is based primarily on virologic testing, which disproportionately misses mild and asymptomatic infections. Serologic measures are more likely to capture all previously infected individuals.ObjectiveEstimate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection from household and community exposures, and identify key risk factors for transmission and infection.DesignCross-sectional household serosurvey and transmission model.SettingGeneva, SwitzerlandParticipants4,524 household members ≥5 years from 2,267 households enrolled April-June 2020.MeasurementsPast SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed through IgG ELISA. Chain-binomial models based on the number of infections within households used to estimate the cumulative extra-household infection risk and infection risk from exposure to an infected household member by demographics and infector’s symptoms.ResultsThe chance of being infected by a SARS-CoV-2 infected household member was 17.3% (95%CrI,13.7-21.7%) compared to a cumulative extra-household infection risk of 5.1% (95%CrI,4.5-5.8%). Infection risk from an infected household member increased with age, with 5-9 year olds having 0.4 times (95%CrI, 0.07-1.4) the odds of infection, and ≥65 years olds having 2.7 (95%CrI,0.88-7.4) times the odds of infection of 20-49 year olds. Working-age adults had the highest extra-household infection risk. Seropositive asymptomatic household members had 69.6% lower odds (95%CrI,33.7-88.1%) of infecting another household member compared to those reporting symptoms, accounting for 14.7% (95%CrI,6.3-23.2%) of all household infections.LimitationsSelf-reported symptoms, small number of seropositive kids and imperfect serologic tests.ConclusionThe risk of infection from exposure to a single infected household member was more than three-times that of extra-household exposures over the first pandemic wave. Young children had a lower risk of infection from household members. Asymptomatic infections are far less likely to transmit than symptomatic ones but do cause infections.Funding SourceSwiss Federal Office of Public Health, Swiss School of Public Health (Corona Immunitas research program), Fondation de Bienfaisance du Groupe Pictet, Fondation Ancrage, Fondation Privée des Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, and Center for Emerging Viral Diseases.