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Review of "Distinct Immune Signatures Discriminate SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Combinations"

Reviewer: Z Hu (Fudan University) | 📗📗📗📗◻️

Published onOct 29, 2022
Review of "Distinct Immune Signatures Discriminate SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Combinations"
key-enterThis Pub is a Review of
Distinct immune signatures discriminate SARS-CoV-2 vaccine combinations

AbstractSeveral vaccines have been found effective against COVID-19, usually administered in homologous regimens, with the same vaccine used for the prime and boost doses. However, recent studies have demonstrated improved protection via heterologous mix-and-match COVID-19 vaccine combinations, and a direct comparison among these regimens is needed to identify the best employment strategies. Here, we show a single-cohort comparison of changes to the humoral and cellular immune compartments following five different COVID-19 vaccines spanning three technologies (adenoviral, mRNA and inactivated vaccines). These vaccines were administered in a combinatorial fashion, resulting in sixteen different homologous and heterologous regimens. SARS-CoV-2-targeting antibody titres were highest when the boost dose consisted of mRNA-1273, independent of the vaccine used for priming. Priming with BBIBP-CorV induced less class-switching among spike-binding memory B cells and the highest antigen-specific T cell responses in heterologous combinations. These were generally more immunogenic in terms of specific antibodies and cellular responses compared to homologous regimens. Finally, single-cell analysis of 754 samples revealed specific B and T cell signatures of the vaccination regimens, indicating distinctive differences in the immune responses. These data provide new insights on the immunological effects of COVID-19 vaccine combinations and a framework for the design of improved vaccination strategies for other pathogens and cancer.

To read the original manuscript, click the link above.

Reviewer (Zhidong H…) | 📗📗📗📗◻️

RR:C19 Strength of Evidence Scale Key

📕 ◻️◻️◻️◻️ = Misleading

📙📙 ◻️◻️◻️ = Not Informative

📒📒📒 ◻️◻️ = Potentially Informative

📗📗📗📗◻️ = Reliable

📘📘📘📘📘 = Strong

To read the review, click the link below.

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Rose J Lever:

Distinct Immune Signatures Discriminate SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Combinations" is a study exploring how different combinations of COVID-19 vaccines trigger unique immune responses. By analyzing immune signatures, the research aims to understand the effectiveness and potential synergies of mixing various vaccine types. This investigation sheds light on optimizing vaccination strategies for enhanced protection against SARS-CoV-2.

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Vape Factory:

For Manufacturer of E-Cigarettes, Vapes

As a manufacturer of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), vapes, or other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), it is crucial to be aware of the regulatory framework imposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA oversees various aspects of ENDS, including manufacturing, importation, packaging, labeling, advertising, promotion, sale, and distribution. However, it's important to note that FDA regulations apply to ENDS components and parts, excluding accessories.

Regulated Components and Parts of ENDS

The following are examples of components and parts of ENDS that fall under FDA regulations:

  • E-liquids: These are the fluids used in ENDS devices, typically containing nicotine and other ingredients.

  • Glass or plastic vial containers: Used to store and dispense e-liquids.

  • Cartridges: These are pre-filled containers that hold e-liquids and are attached to ENDS devices.

  • Atomizers: The atomizer is the part of an ENDS device responsible for heating the e-liquid and converting it into vapor for inhalation.

  • Cartomizers and clearomizers: Similar to atomizers, these components deliver e-liquid in vapor form.

  • Certain batteries: FDA regulations cover specific types of batteries used in ENDS devices.

  • Digital display or lights: Components that enable users to adjust settings and view information on the device.

  • Tank systems: Reservoirs that hold e-liquids.

  • Drip tips or mouthpieces: The part of an ENDS device that users inhale vapor from.

  • Flavorings: Various flavors added to e-liquids.

  • Programmable software: ENDS devices that contain programmable software are subject to FDA regulations.

  • Products marketed for therapeutic purposes: ENDS products advertised as aids for smoking cessation fall under the regulation of FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). The FDA has clarified the criteria for determining when tobacco-derived products are classified as tobacco products, drugs, and/or devices.

Compliance Requirements for ENDS Manufacturers

If you engage in any of the following activities related to ENDS, you must comply with the FDA's requirements for manufacturers:

  • Making or modifying ENDS products

  • Mixing or preparing e-liquids containing nicotine

  • Manufacturing, fabricating, or assembling ENDS devices

  • Processing, labeling, repacking, or relabeling ENDS products

  • Importing ENDS products

To ensure compliance, it is essential to familiarize yourself with the specific regulations governing ENDS manufacturing. For guidance and assistance with understanding FDA requirements, you can reach out to the Office of Small Business Assistance within the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products (CTP). This office provides valuable resources, including online educational materials, to help regulated industries navigate FDA regulations and policies effectively.

Are You a Retailer of ENDS Products?

If you operate as a retailer of ENDS products, it is crucial to understand your role in safeguarding the well-being of consumers, particularly youth, and adhering to FDA regulations. The following resources can assist you in complying with FDA tobacco regulations:

"This is Our Watch" Program

"This is Our Watch" is a voluntary education program designed to provide resources to tobacco retailers, enabling them to better understand and comply with FDA regulations. By actively participating in this program, retailers play a direct role in protecting young individuals from nicotine addiction and the harmful effects of tobacco use. To safeguard the future generation from tobacco-related diseases, it is essential for tobacco retailers to be well-informed about the rules and regulations.

Retail Sales of Tobacco Products

For comprehensive information regarding federal rules that retailers must follow, the Retail Sales of Tobacco Products offers valuable insights. This resource provides guidance, regulations, and access to webinars specifically curated for retailers in the tobacco industry. By staying updated with these resources, retailers can ensure compliance and contribute to the health and well-being of their communities.

Vape Shops with Mixing or Modification Services

If you operate a vape shop that offers services such as mixing or preparing e-liquids containing nicotine or modifying ENDS products, it is important to note that you may be classified as both a manufacturer and a retailer of tobacco products. Consequently, you are required to comply with the regulations outlined for both roles, as mentioned above.


In conclusion, understanding and complying with FDA regulations is crucial for vape manufacturers and retailers involved in the production, distribution, and sale of E-Cigarettes, Vapes, or other ENDS. By adhering to these regulations, you contribute to the safety and well-being of consumers, particularly young individuals. Stay informed, seek guidance when needed, and ensure compliance to navigate the regulatory landscape effectively.


1. Are accessories for ENDS devices regulated by the FDA?
No, FDA regulations for ENDS cover components and parts but exclude accessories.

2. What are some examples of regulated components of ENDS?
Regulated components include e-liquids, cartridges, atomizers, batteries, tank systems, flavorings, and more.

3. What should I do if I have specific questions about FDA requirements for small businesses?
You can contact the Office of Small Business Assistance within the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) for guidance and answers to your queries.

4. How can vape shops comply with FDA regulations?
Vape shops must adhere to the requirements for both manufacturers and retailers, as they may have legal responsibilities in both capacities.

5. What resources are available for tobacco retailers to understand and comply with FDA regulations?
The "This is Our Watch" program and the Retail Sales of Tobacco Products provide valuable resources, guidance, and webinars for tobacco retailers to ensure compliance with FDA regulations.

Focus Keywords

  • ENDS Manufacturers

  • FDA Regulations

  • Compliance Requirements

  • Retailers of ENDS Products

  • Vape Shops and FDA Regulations

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ENDS Manufacturers: Understanding FDA Regulations and Compliance Requirements



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Learn about FDA regulations and compliance requirements for ENDS manufacturers. Understand the guidelines for retailers of ENDS products and vape shops. Discover how to comply and ensure consumer safety.